Move Through Yoga


Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD)

The term may have slightly different definitions depending on the context. The American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities defines “Developmental Disabilities” as an umbrella term that includes intellectual disability, but also includes other disabilities that are apparent during childhood.

Developmental disabilities are severe chronic disabilities that can be cognitive, physical or both. The disabilities appear before the age of 22 and are likely to be lifelong. Some developmental disabilities are largely physical issues, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Some individuals may have a condition that includes a physical and intellectual disability, for example, Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome.

Intellectual disability encompasses the “cognitive” part of this definition, that is, a disability that is broadly related to thought processes. There are three major criteria for intellectual disability: significant limitations in intellectual functioning, significant limitations in adaptive behavior, and onset before the age of 18 (  The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) recognizes ADHD as a developmental disability.


Physical disability indicates any physical limitations or disabilities that inhibit the physical function of one or more limbs of a certain person. It can be temporary or permanent. The causes of this kind of disease are various. Any person can acquire it through accident, injury, illness post-surgery effects and heredity. Some examples of physical disability are:

Cerebral Palsy

  • A group of disorders that impact a person’s ability to move and maintain balance. Cerebral palsy is usually caused by abnormal brain development or brain damage that affects one’s ability to control one’s muscles. It is the most common motor disability present ar birth.
  • The symptoms of Cerebral palsy vary from person to person.
  • A person with severe CP may need to use special equipment to walk and lifelong care.
  • A person with mild CP may walk awkwardly but may not need special assistance.

Types of Cerebral Palsy: 

Spastic Cerebral Palsy 

  • The most common type of CP. People with spastic CP usually suffer from muscle stiffness.

Spastic diplegia  

  • Muscle stiffness is mainly in the legs, with the arms less affected or not affected at all

Spastic hemiplegia 

  • Affect only one side of one’s body. The arm is more affected than the leg.

Spastic quadriplegia 

  • Affect our limbs, the trunk, and the face. People with spastic quadriplegia usually cannot walk and have other developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability and seizures.

Spinal Cord Injuries 

  • Spina cord injury indicates the damages to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal.
  • Result in permanent loss of strength, sensation, and function (mobility and feeling).

Causes of spinal cord injury

  • Trauma and diseases

According to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading scale, spinal cord injury can be classified as the following categories.

  • ASIA A: a complete spinal cord injury with no sensory or motor function preserved.
  • ASIA B: a sensory incomplete injury with complete motor function loss.
  • ASIA C: a motor incomplete injury with some movement.
  • ASIA D: a motor incomplete injury with more than half of the muscle groups is anti-gravity.
  • ASIA E: normal


  • Indicates removal of part of all of a body part that is enclosed by skin.

Causes of Amputation: 

  • accident
  • animals attack
  • warfare
  • surgery

Spina Bifida  

  • A birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord do not form properly.
  • A type of neural tube defect. The neural tube forms early in pregnancy and closes by the 28th day after conception. Babies with Spina bifida do not have such progress and will suffer from this defect in the spinal and in the bones of the spine.

Types of Spina bifida:  

Spina bifida occulta

  • It is the mildest and most common type. Many people who have spina bifida occulta do not even know it until they accept professional medical examinations. This type of SP usually does not have obvious symptoms.


  • aka “Open Spina Bifida”

It is the most severe type. Typical Symptoms are listed below:

  • The spinal canal is open along several vertebrae in the lower or middle back.
  • Both the membranes and the spinal cord forming a sac.
  • Tissues and nerves usually are exposed, though sometimes skin covers the sac.

Musculoskeletal injuries

  • Refer to the damage of muscular or skeletal systems, which is usually due to strenuous activities. They are the most common work-related injuries. Workers often engage in some frequent and repetitive works that require them to hold awkward postures while working and eventually cause the disease to develop.


Adapted Physical Education

Adapted physical education (APE) is specially designed instruction in physical education that has been adapted or modified so that it is as appropriate for the person with a disability as it is for a person without a disability. (Source)

  • Federal law mandates that physical education be provided to students with disabilities and defines physical education as the development of:
  • physical and motor skills
  • fundamental motor skills and patterns (throwing, catching, walking, running, etc)
  • skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports)  34 C.F.R. 300.39(b)(2)

Adapted physical educators provide APE instruction and services to students with disabilities who qualify for special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (commonly referred to as [IDEA]; IDEA, 2004). They also provide APE services to students who receive accommodations and services under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973). They may also provide assistance to physical educators and athletic coaches making reasonable accommodations in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act ([ADA]; ADA, 1990).

The services provided by an APE teacher include (adapted from Sherrill, 1998):

  • Planning services
  • Assessment of Individuals /Ecosystems
  • Prescription/Placement: The IEP
  • Teaching/Counseling/Coaching
  • Evaluation of Services
  • Coordination of Resources and Consulting
  • Advocacy

The APE teacher is a direct service provider, not a related service provider, because physical education for children with disabilities is a federally mandated component of special education services [U.S.C.A. 1402 (25)]. This means that physical education needs to be provided to the student with a disability as part of the special education services that child and family receive. This is contrasted with physical therapy and occupational therapy, which are related services. These therapies are provided to the child with disabilities only if he/she needs them to benefit from instruction.

 Adaptive Yoga

  • Adaptive yoga is a style of yoga that considers all bodies and abilities. It’s accessible to everyone, and multiple variations are taught, allowing the poses to be adapted to specific needs and abilities. Accessible yoga or adapted yoga are other common names for this practice.
  • Adaptive yoga classes tend to be quite individualized and are often taught in smaller group settings

Shape America

  • SHAPE America Sets the Standard for Health and Physical Education. Our National Standards for K-12 Physical Education serve as the foundation for well-designed physical education programs across the country. (Source)

Unified PE 

  • Unified Physical Education provides a unique opportunity for students with and without disabilities to come together through ongoing educational and physical activities, using the power of Special Olympics. (Source)
  • The Unified Physical Education course is structured around SHAPE America’s National Standards and Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education. Additionally, the class supports the development of leadership skills for all students as well as the empowerment of all students to foster an inclusive class and school-wide environment

Students With Significant Support Needs (SSN):

  • Students with significant support needs are highly diverse learners with extensive needs in the areas of cognition and/or learning, communication, movement and social/emotional abilities. The individual may also have concurrent health, sensory, physical and/or behavioral disabilities. (Source)

Students with significant support needs require: 

  • a wide variety of approaches and supports to demonstrate their knowledge and skills
  • intensive instruction in literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills in order to acquire and generalize knowledge
  • substantial adaptations (modifications and accommodations) and/or ongoing supports in order to access grade level curriculum
  • access to assistive technology tools to communicate, learn and demonstrate their knowledge
  • progress to be measured by observation, data collection, assessment, and work samples
  • individualized levels of support across major life activities in home, school, and community.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Free appropriate public education (FAPE), Least restrictive environment (LRE):

  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the nation’s federal special education law that ensures public schools serve the educational needs of students with disabilities. IDEA requires that schools provide special education services to eligible students as outlined in a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). (Source)
  • IDEA is an opportunity to teach people with disabilities how to play online casino. This is a federal law for education in public schools so that persons with disabilities have the opportunity to earn their own money with online casino check it out. There will be no requirements for students at all, the IEP training program on playing in online casino and earning opportunities will be provided at the expense of the state
  • IDEA also provides very specific requirements to guarantee a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment (LRE). FAPE and LRE are the protected rights of every eligible child, in all fifty states and U.S. Territories.
  • IDEA requires every state to issue regulations that guide the implementation of the federal law within the state. At a minimum, state regulations must provide all of the protections contained in IDEA. Some states may have additional requirements that go beyond the federal law. Many states offer handbooks or guides to help parents understand these state-specific policies and procedures.


Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. According to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an estimated 1 in 36 children in the United States today.

We know that there is not one autism but many subtypes, most influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because autism is a spectrum disorder, each person with autism has a distinct set of strengths and challenges. The ways in which people with autism learn, think and problem-solve can range from highly skilled to severely challenged. Some people with ASD may require significant support in their daily lives, while others may need less support and, in some cases, live entirely independently.
Several factors may influence the development of autism, and it is often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues such as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, seizures or sleep disorders, as well as mental health challenges such as anxiety, depression and attention issues.
Signs of autism usually appear by age 2 or 3. Some associated development delays can appear even earlier, and often, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months. Research shows that early intervention leads to positive outcomes later in life for people with autism. (Source:

Down Syndrome:

Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” of genes in the body. They determine how a baby’s body forms and functions as it grows during pregnancy and after birth. Typically, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes. Babies with Down syndrome have an extra copy of one of these chromosomes, chromosome 21. A medical term for having an extra copy of a chromosome is ‘trisomy.’ Down syndrome is also referred to as Trisomy 21. This extra copy changes how the baby’s body and brain develop, which can cause both mental and physical challenges for the baby. 


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